If Join linkedin 1billiongirls for latest debates with Dear Old Joe
7.5 billion people are to escape from extinction, americans dont need to invent anything moore until they have learnt deep collaboration and data from 1billiongirls asian networks.biden - will he ever let tech wizards have any quality time
what do amazonians tech wizards study?
2025report.com -4 years to first s-gen?Jan 2021 - reminded of what steve jobs said 11 years ago & Economist's norman macrae wrote 25 years ago in london's sunday times - compare that with covid decade (my body's research shows antibodies last about 7 months but would love to be wrong), and then in summer 2019 we learnt not one cent of 3000 trllion dollar western pension money had been put into sdgs let alone vaccines -something not right with 21stcmedia??
economists welcome A for aid & AI B for black and bank D for Diary F for food G FOR GREEN ,H for health .
.sdgsu.com fazleabed.com xglasgow.com 1billiongirls.com collaborationcafe.city
we're working on 1 billion girls top 50 grassroots unicorn networks - instead of being exited -this have linked villagers
since 1972 - question 1 in china and bangladesh- how to raise life expectancy of villages without electricity to 60s instead of 40s - so unicorns on village g3 health and g2 food security came first- then village banking g1 and village education-norman called this rural keynes in his 1977 survey of 2 billion asians - we'll have the 50 unicorns version 1 ready as youth handout
cop26 glasgow university union 6 nov 2021- if you have an under 30s chapter who'd like to zoom in or present their sdg solution networks pls connect
chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk - in memory of fazle abed, norman macrae and adam smith scholars since industrial revolution 1 machine energy glasgow 1761
Back to www.normanmacrae.comSDG education revolutionCommentaryFriends and FamilyFuture HistoryBiographycoming - books.. diary 2020

Norman Macrae, having survived teenage navigation of RAF planes bomber command world war 2 over modern-day myanmar/bangladesh, joined The Economist in 1949, and retired as the deputy editor of what he called "the world's favourite viewspaper" in 1988. During that time, he wrote extensively on the future of society and the impact of technology. Norman foresaw species sustainability as being determined by post-colonial and virtual mapmaking- 5G 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G if 60s tech could race to moon and Moore alumni promised 100 times more machine intel every decade TO 2025, let's end poverty mediating/educating a world of loving each others' children- so that wherever the next millennials girl is born she enjoys great chance to thrive.

Soon Norman was celebrating his wartime enemy's rising engineers and win-win sme supply chains across far east and very concerned that tod down constitutions english speaking nations led by political bureaucrats wasn't fit for entrepreneurial revolution-he co-opted a young romani prodi to translate Economist 1976 ER survey into multilingual formats

Amongst some of his more outlandish claims: that governments would not only reverse the nationalisation process and denationalise formerly private industries, but would also sell industries and services that had been state operated for so long that it seemed impossible that they could be run by private companies. A pioneer before the pioneers, Macrae imagined privatised and competing telecommunications and utility companies improving service levels and reducing prices.

When others saw arms build-ups as heralding World War III, Macrae predicted the fall of the Berlin Wall by the end of the 1980's.

The Norman Macrae Archive serves as an on-line library, hosting a growing collection of Macrae articles, newspaper columns and highlights from his books. We hope that you find the articles thought provoking and zoom, twitter or question us - norman's son chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

best wishes


help linkin sdg coalition maps- peru ...millennials rewind usa in 1999 afore 3G mobilisation decade- sample of cluetrain signees
| Saving the Internet—and all the commons it makes The ninth and worst enclosure is the one inside our heads. Because, if we think the Internet is something we use by grace of Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Google and “providers” such as phone and cable companies, we’re only helping all those companies contain the Internet’s usefulness inside their walled gardens.
Not understanding the Internet can result in problems similar to ones

we suffer by not understanding common pool resources such as the atmosphere, the oceans, and the Earth itself.

chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk, normanmacrae.net quarters 5 and 6 of EconomistDiary 2018-1843 - journalists valuing mediation of goal 1 end poverty , A global databank for brandchartering the interconnecting aims of CLO, CBO and CEO in organising learning, branding and strategy - "I'd like to ask : Isn't it time that branders, strategists, and learning systems people believed and acted on their marketing promise as much as they want end-consumers to trust it? I am editing a millennial issue of a journal where we are urgently inviting world leading influencers of strategy, brand or learning to write 6 pages on future organisational frameworks in such simple language that every reader connects to the big idea whatever their home area of expertise"..........

Thursday, December 31, 1970

soros, gates, americas other largest philanhropists

 soros and gates appear to be the 2 largest philanthropists since 1970 - so updates on them appear in 1970 listings - both understood economic revolution of fazle abed  around 2004 as they were searching for health solutions and have been involved in  core partnerships of brac going global since 2001 challenge set by mrs steve jobs -

soros specifcally helped launch bracusa chair out of columbia unversity medical school though columbia's continued support appears underwheliming - contrast its purpose with youth compared with crow who moved to arizona state

other contents

1971 bloomberg ny based (china)

1973 acumen  ny based

 schwarzman ny based (china)

 carnegie ny based

 all intel 


List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reservesspecial drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.
These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.
The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Foreign exchange reserves[edit]

Country or regionForeign exchange
(millions of US$)
Figures as ofChange from previous data
(millions of US$) weekly/monthly
Steady China[b]3,298,220July 2020[1]Increase 54,898
Steady Japan1,383,164June 2020[2]Increase 4,925
Steady  Switzerland896,111June 2020[3][4]Increase 48,414
Steady Russia600,700[c]07 Aug 2020[5]Increase 9,100
Steady India538,191[d]07 Aug 2020[6]Increase 3,623
Steady Taiwan[e]496,170July 2020[7]Increase 7,480
Steady Saudi Arabia447,356[f]June 2020[8]Decrease 1,876
Steady Hong Kong445,900June 2020[9]Increase 1,100
Steady South Korea416,500July 2020[10]Increase 5,800
10 Steady Brazil348,781June 2020[11]Increase 3,075
11 Steady Singapore321,351July 2020[12]Increase 8,854
12 Steady Thailand274,492July 2020[13]N/A
13 Steady Germany245,055April 2020[14]Increase 10,628
14 Steady France237,831April 2020[15]Increase 40,565
15 Steady Mexico196,146April 2020[16]Increase 6,366
16 Steady Italy190,217April 2020[17]Increase 8,823
17 Steady United Kingdom179,225May 2020[18]Increase 849
18 Steady Israel157,662July 2020[19]Increase 10,325
19 Steady Czech Republic150,885June 2020[20]Increase 381
20 Increase United States132,239[g]May 2020[21]Increase 2,975
21 Decrease Indonesia130,544May 2020[22]Increase 3,336
22 Steady Poland112,943March 2020[23]Decrease 458
23 Steady United Arab Emirates106,463March 2020[24]Decrease 3,092
24 Steady Malaysia102,484April 2020[25]Increase 781
25 Increase Philippines93,319June 2020[26]Increase 4,323
26 Increase Canada87,322May 2020[27]Increase 1,222
27 Decrease Turkey86,345June 2020[28]Decrease 4,161
28 Steady Iran[h]86,000February 2020[29]N/A
29 Increase Vietnam81,413April 2020[30]Increase 268.4
- Europe (ECB)[i]79,240April 2020[31]Increase 3,900
30 Decrease Spain79,664July 2020[32]Increase 420
31 Increase Libya[j]71,629September 2017[33]N/A
32 +2 Increase Norway69,139March 2020[34][35]Increase 4,931
33 Steady Peru68,150March 2020[36][37]Increase 1,933
34   -3 Decrease Algeria62,000February 2020[38]Decrease 10,600
35 +2 Increase Australia55,922March 2020[39]Increase 1,383
36 +4 Increase Colombia55,000May 2020[40]Increase 2,430
37 Increase Sweden54,648March 2020[41]Increase 1,455
38   -3 Decrease Denmark54,251March 2020[42]Decrease 8,313
39 Lebanon53,10031 December 2017[29]
40 Steady South Africa53,003April 2020[43]Increase 576
41 Azerbaijan47,500April 2019[44]
42 Iraq47,02031 December 2017[29]
43 Steady Netherlands44,859March 2020[45]Decrease 80
44 Steady Romania42,654March 2020[46]Decrease 1,910
45 Steady Kuwait40,600February 2020[47]Increase 203
46 Steady Argentina39,189February 2020[48]Increase 317
47 Steady Qatar37,729February 2020[49][50]Increase 430
48 Steady Bulgaria36,991March 2020[51]Decrease 300
49 Steady Chile36,777March 2020[52]Increase 1,879
50 Increase Nigeria36,563June 2020[53][k]Increase 2,673
51 Decrease Egypt36,254April 2020[54]Decrease 3,039
52 Steady Bangladesh3718029 July 2020[55]Increase 760
53 Steady Kazakhstan29,967March 2020[51]Increase 76
54 Steady Belgium29,676March 2020[51]Increase 46
55 Steady Ukraine28,800August 2020[51]Increase 300
56 Steady Hungary28,209March 2020[51]Increase 988
57 Increase Portugal27,053March 2020[51]Increase 1,671
58 Decrease Austria26,443March 2020[51]Decrease 557
59 Steady Morocco24,644February 2020[51]Decrease 326
60 +3 Increase New Zealand23,897March 2020[51]Increase 4,959
61 Increase Macau, China22,430April 2020[56]Decrease 391
62 Decrease Croatia21,304February 2020[51]Increase 430
63 Decrease Turkmenistan20,600December 2017[29]N/A
64 Increase North Korea8,000November 2013[57]
65 Increase Jordan17,267March 2020[51]Increase 129
66 Increase Angola17,012June 2019[58][59][l]
67 Increase Uzbekistan16,00031 December 2017[29]N/A
68 Decrease Oman15,867February 2020[51]Decrease 469
69 +3 Increase Uruguay15,340April 2020[60]Increase 1,100
70 Guatemala14,511September 2019[51]
71 Serbia14,515September 2019[m]
72 Cambodia13,8862018[61]
73 Cuba12,80031 Dec 2017[29]
74 Kenya12,766January 2020[61]
75 Pakistan12,46907 Aug 2020 [62]Decrease73
76 Steady Finland11,463May 2020[63]Decrease 394
77 Greece9,798April 2020[64]Increase 670
78 +4 Increase Paraguay8,541April 2020[65]Increase 800
79   -1 Decrease   Nepal8,180April 2020[66]Decrease 490
80 Belarus7,883April 2020[63]Decrease 1311
81 Afghanistan7,80030 March 2019[67]
82 Dominican Republic7,591September 2019[63]
83 Ghana7,55531 December 2017[29]
84 Sri Lanka7,52524 April 2020[68]
85 Slovakia7,524April 2020[63]
86 Costa Rica7,482September 2019[63]
87 Botswana7,47631 December 2017[29]
88 Mauritius7,217September 2019[63]
89 Trinidad and Tobago7,103October 2019[69]
90 Iceland6,776October 2019[63]
91 -12 Decrease Bolivia6,467January 2020[70]Decrease 2,000
92 -14 Decrease Venezuela6,330May 2020[71]Decrease 2,200
93 Ireland5,644October 2019[63]
94 Tunisia5,540October 2019[63]
95 +5 Increase Ecuador5,377April 2020[72]Increase 431
96 Bosnia and Herzegovina5,37031 December 2017[29]
97 Myanmar5,03231 December 2017[29][n]
98 Honduras5,005July 2019[63]
99 El Salvador4,735September 2019[63]
100 Ivory Coast4,68831 December 2017[29]
101 Latvia4,498September 2019[63]
102 Lithuania4,481October 2019[63]
103 Tanzania4,17431 December 2017[29]
104 Mongolia3,986September 2019[63]
105 Panama3,88831 December 2017[29]
106 Albania3,724October 2019[63]
107 Jamaica3,605March 2019[63]
108 North Macedonia3,420September 2019[63]
109 Bahrain3,41529 February 2020[citation needed]
110 Brunei3,4072018[61]
111 Georgia3,387October 2019[63]
112 Ethiopia3,14731 December 2017[29]
113 Uganda3,04531 December 2017[29]
114 Moldova2,942September 2019[63]
115 Armenia2,840December 2019[73]
116 Zambia2,42631 December 2017[29]
117 Cameroon2,35731 December 2017[29]
118 Kyrgyzstan2,203September 2019[63]
119 Nicaragua2,201August 2019[63]
120 Mozambique2,19331 December 2017[29]
121 Haiti2,04431 December 2017[29]
122 Namibia1,94931 December 2017[29]
123 Papua New Guinea1,80031 December 2017[29]
124 Madagascar1,7402018[61]
125 Bahamas1,4142017[61]
126 Estonia1,352October 2019[63]
127 Tajikistan1,2842018[61]
128 Montenegro1,2612018[61]
138 Bhutan1,238.2019[61]
129 Guinea1,2252018[61]
130 Luxembourg1,070October 2019[63]
131 Curaçao1,05531 October 2019[74][o]
132 Niger1,0392015[61][failed verification]
133 Cyprus1,034October 2019[63]
134 Rwanda1,02631 December 2017[29]
135 Slovenia1,022October 2019[63]
136 Laos99031 December 2017[29]
137 Aruba9802018[61]
139 Lesotho98331 December 2017[29]
140 Fiji96731 December 2017[29]
141 Mauritania9342018[61]
142 Malta890October 2019[63]
143 Kosovo8812018[61]
144 Gabon83531 December 2017[29]
145 Republic of the Congo81331 December 2017[29]
146 Malawi7602018[61]
147 Maldives7222018[61]
148 Timor-Leste6742018[61]
149 Palestine632August 2019[63][p]
150 Mali6242015[61][failed verification]
151 Solomon Islands6172018[61]
152 Cape Verde6062018[61]
153 Seychelles535September 2019[63]
154 Guyana5182018[61]
155 Sierra Leone5032018[61]
156 Suriname5812018[61]
157 Liberia4752017[61]
158 Djibouti4542018[61]
159 Democratic Republic of the Congo44531 December 2017[29]
160 Eswatini4412018[61]
161 Vanuatu4212018[61]
162 Equatorial Guinea41631 December 2017[29]
163 Syria40731 December 2017[29]
164 Antigua and Barbuda3892018[61]
165 Saint Kitts and Nevis3632018[61]
166 Central African Republic3622018[61]
167 San Marino3392018[61]
168 Guinea-Bissau3322015[61][failed verification]
169 Belize2942018[61]
170 Saint Lucia2862018[61]
171 Tonga2772018[61]
172 Eritrea23731 December 2017[29]
173 Grenada2342018[61]
174 Togo21531 December 2017[29]
175 Barbados20531 December 2017[29]
176 Yemen24531 December 2017[29]
177 Sudan1782017[61]
178 Federated States of Micronesia2042017[61]
179 Comoros1992018[61]
180 Gambia1922018[61]
181 Dominica1912018[61]
182 Samoa1702018[61]
183 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1702018[61]
184 Senegal15231 December 2017[29]
185 Chad1482018[61]
186 Zimbabwe872018[61]
187 South Sudan682016[61]
188 Burundi682018[61]
189 Benin6031 December 2017[29]
190 Montserrat4931 December 2017[29]
191 Burkina Faso4531 December 2017[29]
192 São Tomé and Príncipe472018[61]
193 Somalia3230 December 2017[29]
194 Kiribati731 December 2017[29]

Timeline of the top 5 countries[edit]

The five countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves almost all have reserves of at least 500 billion USD and higher and have maintained such an amount for at least a week. At present there are only five countries whose reserves are at such a figure; this includes ChinaJapanRussiaSwitzerland and IndiaSaudi Arabia formerly included on the list until March 2020; its reserves were severely depleted by the low oil price during the economic fallout of from the global outbreak of coronavirus disease, its ongoing oil price war with Russia and competition from US shale oil.[76]
The images below shows the timeline of their reserves since the earliest available forex data. The list is in accordance to their respective positions.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of China
The foreign-exchange reserves of China are the greatest of all countries and been so for more than 14 years.[77][78] The main composition of Chinese forex reserves is approximately two-thirds USD and one-fifth Euros with the rest made up of Japanese Yen and the British Pound. China is also the only country that has ever had net reserves greater than $4 trillion.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of Japan
Japanese foreign exchange reserves are the second biggest reserves in the world. Japan was the first country to reach $500 billion in reserves and had the highest forex reserves in the world until they were surpassed by China in 2006. Since 2006 they have remained in second place with over $1 trillion, being only the second country to surpass such an amount.[79]
Foreign Exchange Reserves of Switzerland in CHF
Swiss forex reserves are the third biggest reserves in the world and reached $500 Billion in 2014 becoming fifth country to do so after Saudi Arabia. Swiss reserves are compiled in Swiss franc. The high reserves are mainly because of their historic high net trade surplus.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of Russia
Russian reserves are the world's fourth biggest; they were the third country to reach $500 billion.[80] The first fall in reserves was because of the 2008 financial crisis, the second fall in 2015 was due to sanctions imposed by the European Union following the Russian annexation of the Crimea.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of India
The Foreign-exchange reserves of India became the fifth largest on 5th June 2020 after the Reserve Bank of India released its weekly bulletin. On 12th June 2020 reserves exceeded $500 billion for the first time and they became the sixth country after Switzerland to do so.[81] During the 1991 Indian economic crisis country only had $5 billion of reserves left which led to subsequent economic liberalisation. Since then the reserves had seen a 10,000% increase in under 30 years.[82]

Currency composition of foreign exchange reserve